Police raided three houses and two ranches belonging to Orson William Black Jr, 56, who is wanted on charges of child abuse in the US.
Prosecutors say he is also a suspect in the killing of three US citizens in the area in September.
Twenty-six other people living on the properties were also detained.
The arrests come less than two months after 23-year-old Jesse Barlow and brothers Robert and Michael Black, aged 19 and 15 respectively, were shot dead at Rancho El Negro.
It is not clear if they were relatives or followers of Mr Black, or if they had been taken to the property against their will.
The ranches are located in a colony set up by a Mennonite Christian group in 1922.
After fleeing the United States in 2003, Orson William Black Jr settled in the colony, where he is believed to have set up his own polygamous sect, set apart from the Mennonite group living there.
Wednesday, November 08, 2017
FLDS Chaos in Northern Mexico
The local Mennonites probably had no clue: